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Archive for the ‘May Subdivide Geographically’ Category

Q.  So only the main LCSH needs to be able to be geographically subdivided, not all of the other subdivisions?

A.  You actually have to place the geographic subdivision outside all subd that can be subdivided geographically.  So you need to check all.  Usually there is only one |x and if it can’t be subdivided geographically, then place the |z immediately following the main LCSH.  If the |x can be subdivided geographically, then place the |z outside of it.

The best example of this is history. History used as a subdivision cannot be subd. geog.  So if you place a |z in the LCSH string, it has to come before the |x History.

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Q. Can there be more than one geographical (651) heading for a title? I mean, the same geographical location, but with different subdivisions. Q. What if the book covers one place, but we can’t fit all of the subdivisions for the place in one heading?

A. You cannot add more than one place to any given LCSH. If the book covers multiple places and the place aspect is important, then you will have multiple LCSH. For example, Education |z Indiana. if the book is also about Education in Ohio, then you would add Education |z Ohio. To answer your first question, if the main LCSH is a geog. place, yes, you can add different subdivisions. Again, the AF must read that the subd. can be used with a place. So before you add social conditions to the 651 _0 United States, you must read the scope note for social conditions. Again, I only say this if it not already established as such.

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Q. In general, a subdivision (if not already established) is created in the same way a subject heading is, right? Just searching for terms that describe the work. And can we add subdivisions to any subject heading as long as the scope notes say it’s okay?

A. Right.

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Q. Can I add the following additional LCSH for the Lavine title?
Farm life |z Oklahoma |y Dust Bowl Era, 1931-1939 |v Juvenile fiction.

A. Searching the AF for Oklahoma as a geographic name I found the following:

Note that Dust Bowl Era is not established with Oklahoma.  There is no |x Dust Bowl Era in the list of established subdivisions.  So you must search it as a subdivision.  You will find it does not exist as a subdivision but only as a main LCSH.  Which means you cannot add it to the Main LCSH Oklahoma but can only use it as a second LCSH.  So your record might have the following:

651 _0 Oklahoma |x Social life and customs |v Juvenile fiction.   (or some other subdivision pertaining to this book that works with OK)

650 _0 Dust Bowl Era, 1931-1939 |v Juvenile fiction.
In addition the following LCSH works, because farm life can be subdivided geographically:
650 _0 Farm life |z Oklahoma |v Juvenile fiction.

Oklahoma.

E1.

[151]

1 record

E2.

[551]

1 record

E3.

ǂx Antiquities [151]

1 record

E4.

ǂx Antiquities [551]

16 records

E5.

ǂv Biography [151]

1 record

E6.

ǂx Capital and capitol [151]

1 record

E7.

ǂx Capital and capitol [551]

1 record

E8.

ǂx Description and travel [151]

1 record

E9.

ǂx Description and travel ǂy 1951-1980 [451]

1 record

E10.

ǂx Description and travel ǂy 1981- [451]

1 record

E11.

ǂv Fiction [151]

1 record

E12.

ǂv Genealogy [151]

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Q. Can you help with LCSH?
A. LCSH are actually pretty simple.

You think of a term or a phrase that a book is about.  You go into the AF with that term or phrase and search it as an LCSH.  If you find it, you use the established heading from the AF as your main LCSH.  The established heading is always the 1XX field in the AF record.  If you don’t find it then you should rethink your term or phrase and redo your search in the AF until you find an established heading that is appropriate.

For subdivisions, first you should check to see if any are established for your main LCSH, such as in the search for American fiction, see below.  Everything following American fiction with a |y or a |x are established subdivisions (if they have a 150 tag next to it.)  You should always go to the record level regardless to find the established LCSH or established subdivision.  Sometime you have to look through several pages to see all of the established subdivisions.

American fiction

E1.

[150]

1 record

E2.

[550]

53 records

E3.

ǂy 18th century [150]

1 record

E4.

ǂy 19th century [150]

1 record

E5.

ǂy 19th century ǂx History and criticism [150]

1 record

E6.

ǂy 20th century [150]

1 record

E7.

ǂy 20th century ǂv Bibliography [150]

1 record

E8.

ǂy 20th century ǂx History and criticism [150]

1 record

E9.

ǂx African American authors [150]

1 record

E10.

ǂx African American authors ǂx History and criticism [150]

1 record

E11.

ǂx Afro-American authors [450]

1 record

E12.

ǂx Armenian American authors [150]

1 record

E13.

ǂx Asian American authors [150]

1 record

E14.

ǂv Bibliography [150]

1 record

E15.

ǂx Cuban American authors [150]

1 record

E16.

ǂx Filipino American authors [150]

1 record

E17.

ǂx Film and video adaptations [150]

1 record

E18.

ǂx Hispanic American authors [150]

1 record

E19.

ǂx History and criticism [150]

1 record

E20.

ǂx Indian authors [150]

If you do not find something you would like to use as a subdivision, this is when you have to do a separate search in the AF.  If you search it as an LCSH you must find the term or phrase in a 18X tag for the subdivision.  The better way to search is to search it from the beginning as a subdivision.  Note you can only do this in Connexion.  (IF you are in LC authorities, then you better know your MARC tags).  When you find the subdivision you want to use, and this is the important part, you MUST read the scope note.
Let’s take the Example of a book about English influences on American fiction.
American fiction will be the main LCSH.  English influences will be considered as a subdivision.
When you look at the established subdivisions for American fiction, “English influences” is not one of them.  So now you must search it as a subdivision.  The following is from the record for English influences:

180

x English influences

(notice the heading is in the 180 tag for topical subdivisions)

580

‡x Foreign influences ‡w g

680

‡i Use as a topical subdivision under individual literatures other than English.

(this is the scope note)


Read the scope note in the 680 tag to determine if English influences used as a topical subdivision works with American Fiction.  The answer would be yes.
Now you can create an LCSH that looks like the following:

650 _0 American fiction |x English influences.

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Q. If I use a LCSH with an established geographic subheading in my record, do I still have to geographically subdivide all the other LCSH’s I use that allow for geographic subdivision?

A.
If the place aspect refers to all of the subjects of the book, which it usually does, then yes, You must try to subdivide all LCSH geographically.  However, the AF determines this.  If you can’t subdivide geog. then you can consider bringing out the place aspect as the main LCSH.

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Q. You give the example of “|x History |y 20th century” in the notes. But, what if I wanted to use this to modify a LCSH, and ALSO wanted to include a geographic subheading? Where would the |z go? Normally it would be between the |x and |y, but “|x History |y 20th century” is an established subheading, so it would have to stay grouped right?


A.
If you want to use |x History |y with any century, you can use it broadly with any topic (of some historical nature).  I caution you that History cannot be subdivided geog. so any geog. subd. will have to come before |x History.  And, the main LCSH will have to be able to be subdivided geographically as well.  An example is the following book about history of education in the US during the 18th century.

650 _0 Education |z United States |x History |y 18th century.
(the |z comes before the |x because History cannot be subd. geog. per the AF)

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